Phenacetin Pain Killer Medicine CAS 62-44-2 White Powder 99% Purity
Chemical name: Phenacetin
Appearance: white powder
Purity: over 99%
Phenacetin was widely used until the third quarter of the twentieth century, often in the form of an "A.P.C.," or "aspirin-phenacetin-caffeine" compound analgesic, as a remedy for fever and pain. An early formulation (1919) was Vincents APC in Australia.
But the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ordered the withdrawal of drugs containing phenacetin in November of 1983, owing to its carcinogenic and kidney-damaging properties (Federal Register of October 5, 1983 (48 FR 45466)). It was also banned in India.As a result, some branded, and previously phenacetin-based, preparations continued to be sold, but with the phenacetin replaced by safer alternatives. A popular brand of phenacetin was Roches Saridon, which was reformulated in 1983 to contain propyphenazone, paracetamol and caffeine. Coricidin was also reformulated without phenacetin. Paracetamol is a metabolite of phenacetin with similar analgesic and antipyretic effects, but the new formulation has not been found to have phenacetins carcinogenicity.
Phenacetin is now being used as a cutting agent to adulterate cocaine in the UK and Canada, owing to the similar physical features of the two drugs.
Due to its low cost, phenacetin is used for research into the physical and refractive properties of crystals. It is an ideal compound for this type of research.
Mechanism of action:
Its analgesic effects are due to its actions on the sensory tracts of the spinal cord. In addition, phenacetin has a depressant action on the heart, where it acts as a negative inotrope. It is an antipyretic, acting on the brain to decrease the temperature set point. It is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (subacute type) and intercostal neuralgia.
It is metabolized in the body to paracetamol (acetaminophen), which is also a clinically relevant analgesic.
Phenacetin, and products containing phenacetin, have been shown in an animal model to have the side effect and after-effect of carcinogenesis. In humans, many case reports have implicated products containing phenacetin in urothelial neoplasms, especially urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis. In one prospective series, phenacetin was associated with an increased risk of death due to urologic or renal diseases, death due to cancers, and death due to cardiovascular diseases.In addition, people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency may experience acute hemolysis, or dissolution of blood cells, while taking this drug. Acute hemolysis is possible in the case of patients who develop an IgM response to phenacetin leading to immune complexes that bind to erythrocytes in blood. The erythrocytes are then lysed when the complexes activate the complement system.
Chronic use of phenacetin is known to lead to analgesic nephropathy characterized by renal papillary necrosis.This is a condition which results in destruction of some or all of the renal papillae in the kidneys.
One notable death that can possibly be attributed to the use of this drug was that of the aviation pioneer Howard Hughes. He had been using phenacetin extensively for the treatment of chronic pain; it was stated during his autopsy that phenacetin use may have been the cause of his kidney failure.
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|Beta nicotinamide mononucleotide||1094-61-7|
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