English name: PHENACETINUM or PHENACETIN
Molecular formula: C10H13NO2
Molecular weight: 179.2158
Category: raw material medicine, antipyretic and analgesic drugs raw materials.
Characteristics: This product is white, there is a flash of scale like crystal or white crystalline powder, no
smell, taste bitter. This product is dissolved in ethanol or chloroform, slightly soluble in boiling water
Soluble in water.
Phenacetin, introduced in 1887, was used principally as an analgesic, and was the first NSAID and fever reducer to go on the market. Typical doses of 300mg to 500mg a day result in an analgesic effect. Its analgesic effects are due to its actions on the sensory tracts of the spinal cord. In addition, phenacetin has a depressant action of the heart, where it acts as a negative inotrope. It is an antipyretic, acting on the brain to decrease the temperature set point. It is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (subacute type), intercostal neuralgia, and some forms of ataxia.
Phenacetin, and products containing phenacetin have been shown in an animal model to be carcinogenic. In humans, many case reports have implicated products containing phenacetin in urothelial neoplasms, especially transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis. In one prospective series, phenacetin was associated with an increased risk of death due to urologic or renal diseases, death due to cancers, and death due to cardiovascular diseases.
In addition, people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency may experience acute hemolysis while taking this drug. Acute hemolysis is possible in the case of patients who develop an IgM response to Phenacetin leading to immune complexes that bind to erythrocytes in blood. The erythrocytes are then lysed when the complexes activate the complement cascade.
Phenacetin was widely used until the third quarter of the twentieth century, but was then largely replaced by non-carcinogenic drugs. Some branded phenacetin-based preparations continued to be sold, but with the phenacetin replaced by safer alternatives. A popular brand of phenacetin was Roches Saridon, which was reformulated in 1983 to contain propyphenazone, paracetamol and caffeine. Both propyphenazone and paracetamol are metabolites of phenacetin with similar analgesic and antipyretic effects, but the new formulation has not been found to have phenacetins carcinogenicity.
In Norway phenacetin is sold perscription over-the-counter with caffeine in a preparation know as Fenazon-Koffein. One tablet of Fenazon-Koffein contains 500mg phenacetin and 100mg caffeine along with filler products such as glucose.
Phenacetin was widely used until the third quarter of the twentieth century, often in the form of an"A.P.C." or aspirin-phenacetin-caffeine compound analgesic, as a remedy for fever and pain. An early formulation (1919) was Vincents APC in Australia. However the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ordered the withdrawal of drugs containing phenacetin in November 1983, owing to its carcinogenic and kidney-damaging properties (Federal Register of October 5, 1983 (48 FR 45466)). It was also banned in India.As a result some branded, previously phenacetin-based preparations continued to be sold, but with the phenacetin replaced by safer alternatives. A popular brand of phenacetin was Roches Saridon, which was reformulated in 1983 to contain propyphenazone, paracetamol and caffeine. Coricidin was also reformulated without phenaceti. Paracetamol is a metabolite of phenacetiwith similar analgesic and antipyretic effects, but the new formulation has not been found to have phenacetins carcinogenicity.
Phenacetin is now being used as a cutting agent to adulterate cocaine in the UK and Canada, owing to the similar physical features of the two drugs.
Due to low cost phenacetin is used for research into the physical and refractive properties of crystals.
It is an ideal compound for this type of research
|Test Items||Specification||Test Results|
|Description||Should comply with the standard||Pass|
|Identification||Should be positive reaction||Pass|
|Brownish red 4#||Pass|
|4-chloroacetanilide||Should comply with standard||Pass|
|Melting point||134ºC to 137ºC||134ºC to 137ºC|
|Conclusion||Complies with BP68 edition|
Antipyretic effect is stronger than the analgesic effect. Effect of strength is slow and long-lasting as aspirin,
low toxicity. Research shows that: This product and its metabolites acetaminophen have the antipyretic
effect. Because the enzyme inhibitor make phenacetins-Acetate not be converted into paracetamol, still showed
obvious antipyretic effect,thus the antipyretic effect after the product line not converrt to paracetamol.The
mild phenacetins-Acetate analgesic effect usually lasts 3 to 4 hours; and synergistic effect, of alicylic acid
coadministrationmake the analgesic effect enhancement. The main clinical is for small animal antipyretic analgesic. This product is also a component of the APC tablet.
How It Works:
Its analgesic effects are due to its actions on the sensory tracts of the spinal cord. In addition, phenacetin has a depressant action on the heart, where it acts as a negative inotrope. It is an antipyretic, acting on the brain to decrease the temperature set point. It is also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (subacute type) and intercostal neuralgia.
It is metabolised in the body as paracetamol (acetaminophen).
Analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin were previously marketed as tablets or capsules containing between 150 and 300 mg phenacetin. Common combinations were: 150 mg phenacetin, 230 mg aspirin, and 15 or 30 mg caffeine; or 150 mg phenacetin, 230 mg aspirin, 30 mg caffeine, and 8, 15, 30, or 60 mg codeine phosphate. Phenacetin alone was also available in 250 and 300 mg doses as tablets, and up to 500 mg doses as powder. The usual dose was 300 mg 4-6 times per day, and the daily dose was not to exceed 2 g
Anti Inflammatory Pain Relieving Drugs Phenacetin CAS 62-44-22 White Crystalline Images